[Khazaria.com - The 
American Center of Khazar Studies]
A Resource for Turkic and Jewish History in Russia and Ukraine

Last Updated: April 20, 2017

For information about THE JEWS OF KHAZARIA, click here Read about The Jews of Khazaria - the general-interest book about the Khazars in English.

Order the improved 2nd edition in paperback format:
The Jews of Khazaria from Amazon.com
from Amazon.ca in Canada
from Amazon.co.uk in the UK
More ordering options + More formats (hardcover, eBook) + More information about the book

APRIL 20th-27th: Family Tree DNA is offering special DNA Day prices on several autosomal, Y-DNA, and mtDNA tests. For example, only $59 for Family Finder! By the way, you can always transfer your AncestryDNA or 23andMe kit to Family Finder to see close matches for FREE.

History professor Boris Zhivkov's 350-page book Khazaria in the 9th and 10th Centuries was published by Brill in May 2015. Brill's marketing says the book "uses not only the known documentary sources and archaeological finds but also what we know from history of religions (comparative mythology), history of art, structural anthropology and folklore studies." This is an English translation from the Bulgarian version Khazaria prez IX i X vek that had been published by IK Gutenberg in Sofia in 2010.

Tim Duggan Books, a new imprint of The Crown Publishing Group, published Emily Barton's The Book of Esther: A Novel in June 2016. In this alternative history, the Khazar kaganate survives into modern times and with its Jewish religious identity intact, and in 1942 Germania launches a military conflict against Khazaria. The Khazars fight back, including on mechanical horses they've invented. Barton read the second edition of The Jews of Khazaria while writing the novel.

Gennady E. Afanasiev and his co-authors published the Russian article "Khazarskie konfederaty v Basseyne Dona" in Yestestvennonauchnie metodi issledovaniya i paradigma sovremennoy arkheologii: Materiali Vserossiyskoy nauchnoy koferentsii, Moskva, Institut arkheologii Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 8-11 dekabrya 2015 in 2015 on pages 146-153. They examined the uniparental markers of 4 individuals in the Saltovo-Mayaki culture of Khazaria who lived circa the 800s:
•Sample A80301 belonged to the Y-DNA haplogroup R1a1a1b2a (R-Z94) which is of Persian/West Asian origin and found today among Turkic-speaking Karachay people. A80301's mtDNA haplogroup was I4a which is found today in northwestern and central Europe such as in Sweden, and also found around the Black Sea, in the North Caucasus, and in Armenia, Iran, and Siberia.
•Sample A80302's mtDNA haplogroup was D4m2, which is found today in Siberia among the Dolgan, Yakut, and Even peoples, but is never found among Ashkenazim.
•Sample A80410 belonged to the Y-DNA haplogroup G, commonly found among peoples in West Asia and the Caucasus today.
•Sample A80411 belonged to the Y-DNA haplogroup J2a, which is also commonly found in West Asia and the Caucasus today, and also in Central Asia and in parts of Europe like the Balkans.

Anatole A. Klyosov and Tatiana Faleeva's article "Excavated DNA from Two Khazar Burials" in Advances in Anthropology 7 (2017) on pages 17-21 examines the Y-DNA STRs of two Khazar samples from the lower Don region of southern Russia. Both of them belong to haplogroups within R1a's subclade Z93's Turkic branches, not part of the Ashkenazic Jewish or North Slavic lineages of R1a. The authors write that "R1a-Z93 is very common in present-day Turkic-speaking peoples such as Caucasian Karachaevo-Balkars, also Tatars, Bashkirs, Kirgiz, and other populations who apparently descended from Scythians, and have their common ancestors in the R1a-Z93 subclade dated back to 1500-2500 years ago".

Although not directly related to the Khazars, it may interest you that DNA was recovered from an early-medieval Hun buried in Hungary and his Y-DNA haplogroup is L while his mtDNA haplogroup is D4j12.

DNA from 31 Avars from early-medieval southeastern Hungary included the East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups C, M6, D4c1, and F1b as well as (more frequently) some European mtDNA haplogroups. 23% of the Hungarian conquerors (mainly Magyars, but said to have been joined by Khazars) belonged to the "Central and East-Eurasian haplogroups (A, B, C, D, F, G, M)". Supplementary Table S11 (Tab 11 in the spreadsheet) specifies A, A10, A11, A12a, B4, B4c1b, C, C4a1, C4a2, D4c1, D4h1, D4h4a, D4i, D4m2, D4m2a, F1b, G2a, M, M7, N1a1a1a, N1a1a1a1a, and N1b1.

My article "The Chinese Lady Who Joined the Ashkenazic People" first appeared in Jewish Times Asia's March 2015 issue.

At Family Tree DNA's November 2015 genetic genealogy conference, Doron Behar delivered a presentation on the latest findings on the genetics of Ashkenazic Levites who belong to haplogroup R1a. Behar tested 66 Ashkenazic Levite samples and 10 non-Ashkenazic holders of R1a1 using the company's "Big Y" test. The results showed that the branches next-closest to Ashkenazim are Yezdi and Iberian holders, followed by Palestinian Arabs, and much farther away is an Assyrian. Roberta Estes wrote here that "Doron was able to confirm that the Levite population did arise in the Near East." While this seems true based on the data, one of Behar's slides nevertheless says "Unresolved origin", but maybe he means unresolved in terms of the precise population in that region that had transmitted this haplogroup to Jewish people. As I mentioned in my older comment above, an Iranian people have been proposed by other researchers to be that source population.

My article "Sephardic Jews in Galitzian Poland and Environs" had its extended version published in ZichronNote's May 2016 issue.
My second article in the series, "Sephardic Jews in Lithuania and Latvia", had its extended version published in ZichronNote's August 2016 issue.
"Sephardic Jews in Central and Northern Poland" is coming soon!

Medieval Kingdom of Khazaria, 652-1016

Over a thousand years ago, the far east of Europe was ruled by Jewish kings who presided over numerous tribes, including their own tribe: the Turkic Khazars. After their conversion, the Khazar people used Jewish personal names, spoke and wrote in Hebrew, were circumcised, had synagogues and rabbis, studied the Torah and Talmud, and observed Hanukkah, Pesach, and the Sabbath. The Khazars were an advanced civilization with one of the most tolerant societies of the medieval period. It hosted merchants from all over Asia and Europe. On these pages it is hoped that you may learn more about this fascinating culture.

Current Publications for Sale

by Kevin Alan Brook
This book discusses all major issues surrounding the Khazar Empire, including diplomacy, trade, culture, military affairs, Khazarian Judaism, and migrations. The book draws from major primary and secondary sources, and includes a concise timeline and glossary towards the end. This was the first English-language book on the Khazars to contain a substantial amount of archaeological data.

edited by Peter B. Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas
An expensive but valuable collection of wide-ranging views from academic specialists on the Khazars. The 18 articles discuss the Khazars' economy, language, international relations, and more.

by Boris Zhivkov
Examines documentary sources, archaeological discoveries, religious history, art history, folklore studies, and more.

by Osman Karatay
A 336-page general-interest book about the Khazars. In Turkish.

translated and annotated by Rabbi N. Daniel Korobkin
In this classic philosophical work by Yehuda HaLevi, a Jewish sage explains the principles of Judaism to an inquisitive Khazar king. As a special bonus, the historical communications exchanged between Khazar King Joseph and the Spanish Jewish diplomat Hasdai ibn Shaprut are included in this volume.

Books about Eastern European Jews || Books about Khazars
Books about Syrian Jews
Turkic Books || Turkic Videos
Russian Legacy's Store || Timeline of the Russian Empire || Essays on Russian history

Family Tree DNA - Genetic testing service

Family Tree DNA: Genetic Testing Service

Links to the Jewish World

Other Resources on Eastern Europe

Turkic Republics and Communities

Copyright ©1995-2017 Kevin Alan Brook. All Rights Reserved. AMAZON.COM is the registered trademark of Amazon.com, Inc. All brand names are trademarks of their respective holders.

[ICON]Comments and suggestions are invited. You are welcome to e-mail the host of this site, Kevin Brook, at

About Khazaria.com